特朗普开始访华!这些背景和译词要知道 - 草稿

胡志坚院长接受中国日报专访——“中美双方只有通过合作才能谋求发展大计”

来源:中国日报

日期:2019-08-12

 

  Technology strategist hails successful projects achieved through
cooperation

美高梅网赌中心 1

    The United States and China have benefited greatly from cooperation
in science, technology and innovation, a senior Chinese science
strategist said, lamenting the recent protectionist turn in the US.

    Hu Zhijian, president of the Chinese Academy of Science and
Technology for Development, said an objective appreciation of such
accomplishments would help ease recent technology and trade frictions
and reveal new grounds for win-win cooperation between the countries.

China and the US had been close partners in integrated research and
development for most of the past four decades, Hu said.

    From 2012 to 2015, the number of collaborative research projects
involving Chinese and US institutions increased by more than 80 percent,
according to a blue paper on China’s contribution to STI and global
governance published by the academy last year. Chinese and US scientists
had co-authored more than 55,000 papers by 2014.

    Moreover, scientists from both countries had cooperated on climate
change, clean energy, environmental protection, health, agriculture and
other fields related to sustainable development and people’s
livelihoods, the blue paper said.

    It added that Chinese enterprises had set up research and
development facilities in the US, while US companies had established
more than 800 R&D centers in China covering industries including
electronics, information technology, software, food manufacturing,
cosmetics, home furnishing and finance.

    “These interactions have created a flow of talent and know-how to
provide better products and services for the people of both countries
and the world,” Hu said.

    Over time, China and US had developed different but crucial
positions in the global industrial system and value chain, Hu said. The
US was at the top, given its leading position in STI and emerging
industries, while China was at the middle and lower end of the
industrial and value chain, but striving to climb up.

    Like Japan, Singapore, South Korea and other countries before it,
China was improving its people’s living standards through education,
trade, infrastructure investment and technologies.

    “These feats mean China will inevitably close its gap with developed
countries,” Hu said. “But it does not mean China wants to or is capable
of challenging the US’s global dominance.”

    Historically, China’s technological rise was not an issue that
troubled the US, he said, because the US maintained its lead role by
attracting the best talent from around the world to fuel its STI efforts

  • pushing new frontiers, making new products and climbing up the
    industrial value chain.

   “However, STI development is an arduous process, and the US has grown
increasingly anxious that its lead is being eroded,” Hu said. “So
instead of staying ahead via continued innovation, it has turned
protectionist toward China and other developing countries and used
unconventional means, from tariffs to travel restrictions, in the hope
of keeping them behind.”

    At the same time, the US was plagued by many domestic issues,
ranging from growing social inequality to rising corporate influence,
and ordinary US people, notably those from Midwestern states, felt
disenfranchised by globalization and technological progress because “the
fruits of these trends have been mostly reaped by the elites from
coastal states”.

    “When internal issues become too difficult to handle, politicians
often rely on scapegoating to divert public frustration and attract
support, especially during election years,” Hu said.

    “But the US public must realize that blaming China and other
countries for its economic, social and existential woes will not solve
its issues, it will only exacerbate them to disastrous levels for all.”

    Despite the US’s effort to disconnect with China, Hu said full
detachment was unlikely in the long run because it would not be in the
interests of either country.

    “China’s market and its pivotal role in the global industrial chain
are too important for US companies to give up,” he said.

    In addition, science requires the exchange of ideas and
collaboration to progress. When faced with common challenges, from
climate change to changing ethical landscapes in artificial intelligence
and biosciences, “it will require a global joint effort to find the best
solution to tackle these emerging issues,” Hu said.

    “Dividing the scientific community and the world, as some
politicians are implying, is dangerous and counterintuitive to
maximizing the potential of science and its benefit for the people,” he
said.

    Given the unpredictability of the current US administration, China
needs to “keep a rational, objective outlook and focus on improving its
own capability at its own pace”, he said. “We must have the confidence
and patience to get through turbulent times.”

    

   

科技战略专家呼吁通过合作谋求发展大计

美高梅网赌中心 ,中国一位资深科学战略专家表示,美国和中国均在科学、技术和创新方面的合作中受益匪浅,并对美国最近逐渐抬头的保护主义感到遗憾。

中国科学技术发展战略研究院(以下简称“战略研究院”)院长胡志坚表示,客观地理解两国在合作上取得的成就有助于缓解中美近期的技术和贸易摩擦,并能揭示两国之间重新合作共赢的新可能。

胡志坚说:“过去四十年的大部分时间里,中美两国在研发方面一直是密切的合作伙伴”。

根据战略研究院去年发布的关于中国科技进步对世界的贡献与全球科技创新治理的蓝皮书所述,2012年至2015年,中美两国研究机构共同参与的合作研究项目数量增加逾80%。截至2014年,中美两国的科学家共同撰写了逾55,000篇论文。

此外,蓝皮书提到,两国科学家在气候变化、清洁能源、环境保护、健康、农业以及与可持续发展和人民生活有关的其他领域进行了合作。

蓝皮书还提到,中国企业在美国设立了研发机构,而且美国公司在中国建立了800多个研发中心,涵盖电子、信息技术、软件、食品生产、化妆品、家居和金融等领域。

“这些互动创造了两国人才和技术的相互交换和流动,从而为两国和全世界人民提供了更好的产品和服务,”胡志坚说。

胡志坚表示,随着时间的推移,中美两国在全球工业体系和价值链中发展到了不同但至关重要的地位。鉴于美国在科技创新和新兴产业中的领先地位,其已雄踞顶端位置,反观中国处于工业和价值链的中低端,但正在努力攀升。

与排在中国前面的日本、新加坡、韩国和其他国家一样,中国正在通过教育、贸易、基础设施投资和技术提高人民的生活水平。

“这些举措意味着中国将不可避免地缩小与发达国家之间的差距,”胡志坚说,“但这并不意味着中国想要或者有能力挑战美国的全球统治地位。”

他说,从历史上看,中国的技术崛起并非构成困扰美国的问题,因为美国通过吸引世界各地的优秀人才来推动其科技创新的不断向前–开拓新的前沿领域,制造新产品和攀登工业价值链,以此来维持其领先地位。

“然而,科技创新的发展是一个艰难的过程,美国对于其领先优势受到削弱感到深深的焦虑,”胡志坚说,“因此,美国不是通过持续创新,而是在面对中国和其他发展中国家时奉行保护主义,并采用从关税到旅行限制等非常规手段,以期保持自身的领先地位。”

与此同时,美国受到许多国内问题的困扰,从不断加剧的社会不平等到不断增强的企业影响力,普通美国人,特别是来自中西部各州的美国人,被全球化和技术进步所剥夺,因为“这些趋势的成果大多掌握在沿海各州的精英手里”。

“当美国国内问题变得难以处理时,政客们常常依靠替罪羊来转移公众的挫败感并相应获得选民支持,特别是在总统大选期间,”胡志坚说。

   “但美国公众必须意识到,将本国经济、社会和存在的困境归咎于中国和其他国家并不能解决它的问题,反而只会使得这些问题得到恶化,直至对所有人来说灾难性的地步。”

胡志坚表示,尽管美国努力与中国断绝关系,但从长远来看两国不太可能完全脱离,因为这不符合两国的利益。

   “中国市场及其在全球产业链中的关键作用对美国公司来说太重要了,无法抛弃与其之间的联系”他说。

此外,科学需要思想交流和共同协作才能取得进步。胡志坚表示,当面对从气候变化到人工智能和生物科学领域里不断变化的道德观念等共同的挑战,“需要全球共同努力,以便找到解决这些新问题的最佳解决方案。”

    “正如一些政客所暗示的那样,将科学界和世界分离开,对于最大限度地发挥科学潜力及其最大程度地造福人民来说,是危险的且违反常理的,”他说。

鉴于当前美国政府的不可预测性,中国需要“保持理性、客观的态度,并且专注于按照自己的节奏来谋求国家发展”,他说,“我们必须有信心和耐心才能度过动荡时期。”

“We have everything that is required for a state visit, but we
want more than that,” Chinese ambassador to the United States Cui
Tiankai said.

Vice-premier, business leaders at Beijing forum see trouble brewing

中国驻美国大使崔天凯说,“我们除了国事访问的规定动作(everything that
is required for)
,还会有一些特殊安排(want more than
that)啊啊啊翻译真滴很妙
。”


Apart from the red-carpet ceremony, formal talks and banquet,
Chinese President Xi Jinping and his US counterpart will have some
informal get-togethers, Chinese Vice-Foreign Minister Zheng
Zeguang said.

Vice-Premier Han Zheng called for trade liberalization and investment
assistance to ensure sound growth of economic globalization and to make
it open, inclusive, balanced and beneficial to all countries.

中国外交部副部长郑泽光说,除了检阅仪仗队(red-carpet
ceremony)红毯仪式特定的翻译
、正式会谈、举办国宴(banquet)等之外,中国主席习近平和美国总统特朗普(counterpart英文中的代指)还将进行非正式互动(get-togethers)

安工1601韩阳:中国国务院副总理韩正呼吁贸易自由化和投资援助,以确保经济全球化的健康发展,并使其开放、包容、平衡、惠及所有国家。

Though the details of these informal arrangements have not been
made public, Cui said that there will be “some special arrangements”
for Trump and the first family to learn more about Chinese history,
culture and people.

分数  9.5

目前,这次非正式会晤的具体行程(the details of
尚未公开,但崔天凯称,将会为特朗普和他的家人提供“一些特殊安排”,让他们有更多的机会了解中国的历史、文化,了解中国人民。

Han and Vice-Premier Liu He both voiced concerns about trade
protectionism over the weekend, after US President Donald Trump signed a
memorandum on Thursday for a plan that could impose tariffs on up to $60
billion of imports from China. Chinese investment in the US also was
targeted.

During Trump’s stay, the two presidents will have sufficient
time for the “top-level, strategic conversation,” which is “extremely
important for the development of bilateral relations”, Cui said.

安工1602安书涵:
汗和副主席刘盒都声称整个周末都关注贸易保护主义,在唐老鸭特朗普在周四签了一个关于强加给中国60亿美元的进口税的文件,中国在美国的投资也是目标。

在特朗普访华期间(stay),两国元首将有充分(sufficient)感觉足够不怎么上台面…的时间“在最高层面进行战略沟通和对话,这对中美(bilateral)关系发展至关重要。”

分数9

The two presidents spent over seven hours in talks in April in
Trump’s Mar-a-Lago estate in the US state of Florida.

Han, also a member of the Standing Committee of the Political Bureau of
the Communist Party of China Central Committee, said it’s a dead end for
those who resort to trade protectionism to solve problems arising from
economic globalization. Unilateralism and trade wars benefit no one, but
lead to a larger-scale conflict and negative impact, he said.

今年4月,两国元首在美国佛罗里达州的海湖庄园进行了长达7小时的会晤(in
talks)

李奉霖:中共中央政治局常委之一韩正表示,对于那些诉诸贸易保护主义来解决经济全球化问题的人来说,这是一个死胡同。他说,单边主义和贸易战不会给任何人带来好处,但会带来更大的冲突和负面影响。

The informal arrangements will create a good atmosphere for a
sound working relationship and personal friendship between the two
leaders, said Da Wei, director of the Department of American
Studies
at the China Institute of Contemporary International
Relations (CICIR).

分数9.3

中国现代国际关系研究院美国所(Department of American
Studies)所长达巍说,这次非正式会晤有助于推动两国元首维持良好(a good
atmosphere)
的个人友谊和工作关系。

The vice-premier said history has demonstrated that openness will lead
to prosperity. China will further open-up to achieve high-quality
development, focusing on the Belt and Road Initiative and equally
treating domestic and foreign enterprises, he said.

Trade cooperation and the nuclear issue on the Korean Peninsula
are among the key topics for Trump’s discussions in Beijing.

All market entities can take the opportunity to grow quickly and
countries around the world can work with China to realize mutual benefit
and win-win cooperation, Han said.

特朗普访华的核心议题包括贸易合作和朝核问题(nuclear issue on the
Korean Peninsula )算是专有名词
等。

孟雨尘:韩正说,所有的市场主体都可以借此机会快速成长,世界各国都可以与中国合作,实现互利共赢。

Economic relations between China and the United States, the two
largest economies in the world, have been and should continue to be
mutually beneficial, said Cui.

分数  9

崔天凯说,作为世界上最大的两个经济体,中美经济关系应该继续保持互利共赢(mutually
beneficial)

Trump’s memorandum is based on an investigation under Section 301 of the
Trade Act of 1974 into alleged Chinese intellectual property protection
and technology transfer practices.

As there is increasing economic interdependence between the two
countries, “I think it is appropriate to say that there can only be
win-win or lose-lose outcomes,” Cui said.

Liu, who heads the Chinese side in the China-US Comprehensive Economic
Dialogue, said in a phone call on Saturday with US Treasury Secretary
Steven Mnuchin that the US move violates international trade rules and
hurts the interests of China, the United States and the international
community.

崔天凯说,两国经济的相互依存(interdependence)不断加深,可以说“一荣俱荣、一损俱损(win-win
or lose-lose outcomes,” )”。

宋萌:刘,在中国我们综合经济对话的中方负责人,说星期六在电话中与美国财政部长Steven
Mnuchin说,美国此举违反了国际贸易规则,损害中国的利益,美国和国际社会。

The Chinese ambassador also expressed his confidence that there
will be “significant outcomes” on the economic and trade front at
the conclusion of Trump’s China visit.

分数9.2

崔天凯(The Chinese
ambassador代指强上文的当不清楚主语是谁,不妨上文找找,也许就是同一个人不过是换了称呼罢了)还对特朗普访华期间双方取得重要经贸成果(outcomes”
on the economic and trade )表现出信心。

Liu said China is prepared to safeguard its national interests. Both
countries should remain rational and make efforts to stabilize bilateral
economic and trading ties, he said. Both sides agreed to maintain
communications.

Speaking of nuclear issue on the Korean Peninsula, Cui said China has
been doing everything it can on the issue, including enforcing all the
sanctions on the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (DPRK) by the
UN Security Council through a string of resolutions.

China’s economy contributes more than 30 percent to global economic
growth. Its economic development in the past four decades has been
established with the spirit, ingenuity and hard work of the Chinese
people, combined with the reform of the economy and opening to foreign
ideas and investment, Tim Cook, chief executive of Apple Inc, said at
the opening ceremony.

在谈到朝核问题时,崔天凯表示,一直以来,中国在此问题上可以说是尽了最大努力,包括落实联合国安理会针对朝鲜的一系列制裁决议(
a string of resolutions
.)。

王馨艺:中国经济对全球经济增长的贡献超过了30%。苹果公司首席执行官Tim
Cook在开幕会上说,中国经济的发展在过去40年里,与中国人的精神、聪明、努力相结合,结合了经济改革和对外开放的理念和投资。

Meanwhile, Cui pointed out that the nuclear issue cannot be solved by
China itself. “It requires joint efforts of all the parties
concerned, including the United States and the DPRK,” he said.

分数  9.4

同时,崔天凯指出,要解决半岛核问题不能单靠(itself中方,“而是需要包括美国、朝鲜在内(concerned)的有关各方的共同努力”。


Noticing that the situation of the Korean Peninsula will be one of the
priorities of dialogue between Xi and Trump, Cui hoped the two sides
could reach more agreements on it.

Trade protection measures adopted by some countries in the past three
months go against the principles of the rule-based global trading
system, said Li Wei, head of the Development Research Center of the
State Council, which sponsored the forum.

朝核问题将是两国元首讨论的主要议题之一,崔天凯希望两国元首能够达成更多共识。

It is not in anybody’s interest to have an escalating trade war, said
Robert Moritz, global chairman of PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP.

Trump’s visit comes shortly after the 19th National Congress of
the CPC, which reaffirmed a mutually beneficial, win-win opening
up strategy.

Moritz said the global economy would be fragile if trade tensions come
together with other risks.

特朗普访华正值(shortly
after)
中共十九大闭幕不久,十九大重申了(reaffirmed)互利共赢的开放战略。

“While it (protectionism) is in discussions between the US and China
right now, it clearly has the risk of being more inclusive in terms of
other countries being involved,” he said.

The 19th CPC National Congress has outlined the future of China’s
diplomacy, said Jia Xiudong with the China Institute of International
Studies, noting that China-US ties are crucial to the new type of
international relations and the community of shared future for
humanity.

The US needs China and China needs the US, and the world needs both, he
said. There is opportunity for both countries to share the stage of the
world because neither one of them can do as much as they collectively
can do, he said.

中国国际问题研究所特聘研究员贾秀东表示,十九大概述了中国外交的未来,中美关系对构建(英文一个介词。中文就要动词)新型国际关系、打造人类命运共同体至关重要。

Li Xiang contributed to this story.

Since Trump took office, the two leaders have maintained close
contact, including face-to-face meetings, phone conversations and
sending messages on issues of common concern.

孙伟:赞助论坛的国务院发展研究中心主任李炜说,一些国家在过去三个月中采取的贸易保护措施违背了以规则为基础的全球贸易体系的原则。普华永道全球董事长罗伯特·莫里茨(Robert
Moritz)表示,如果贸易紧张局势加剧,全球经济将是脆弱的,这不符合任何人的利益。他说:“虽然保护主义目前正在美中两国之间进行讨论,但在其他国家参与的情况下,它显然有更大的包容性。”他说,美国需要中国和中国,世界需要两者兼而有之。他说,两国都有机会分享世界舞台,因为他们谁也不能做集体的事情,李翔对此作出了贡献。

自特朗普(took
office)上任
以来,两国元首一直保持密切联系,包括面对面会晤、电话交谈以及就(on
issues 就…问题)
共同关心的问题及时交换意见(sending messages)

Frequent communication between the two presidents helps avoid
misunderstandings, manage differences and strengthen
cooperation.

两国元首的频繁交流有助于避免误解、管控分歧(manage
differences分歧)
以及加强合作。

The two presidents will discuss major issues of common concern in
Beijing, Zheng said, noting that the meeting is of great significance
to Sino-US relations and to peace, stability and prosperity in the
Asia-Pacific region and the world.

郑泽光表示,两国元首的北京会晤将就共同关心的重大问题展开讨论,此次会晤对中美关系和亚太地区乃至(and)世界的和平、稳定、繁荣都具有重大意义。

After a deal to reopen Chinese markets to US beef in July, part of the
100-day action plan to boost economic cooperation, American beef
is back on China’s menu.

作为中美经济合作“百日计划”(100-day action plan to boost economic
cooperation)改变结构
的一部分,中国市场于7月份重新向美国牛肉开放,美国牛肉得以回到中国餐桌(menu)在菜单上就是回到餐桌

Since the Mar-a-Lago meeting in April, the 100-day action plan has
produced some tangible results.

自4月海湖庄园会晤以来,中美经济合作“百日计划”已经产生了切实效果(tangible
results
.)果然不能翻译成可看见的效果啊。

Progress in bilateral cooperation has also come via four
high-level dialogue mechanisms focusing on diplomacy and security; the
economy; law enforcement and cyber security; and social and
people-to-people exchanges.

双边合作通过四个高级别对话机制取得进展(progress
come)
,包括外交安全对话、全面经济对话、执法及网络安全对话、社会和人文对话(people-to-people
exchanges)

China is transitioning its economy from a phase of rapid growth to
a stage of high-quality development, setting a higher standard for the
economic transformation.

中国正在经济从高速增长阶段转向高质量发展阶段,并为经济转型(economic
transformation.)
制定了更高的标准。

In the United States, the Trump administration has to tackle major
challenges facing its economy, like restoring its manufacturing
industries and spurring job creation. Trump has set specific
goals, including a 3-percent growth, improving America’s
collapsing infrastructure, and shrinking trade deficits.

在美国,特朗普政府必须解决其经济面临的重大挑战,如重振(restoring)固定搭配制造业和创造(spurring)愿意为刺激就业机会。特朗普已经制定了具体目标,包括3%的经济增长,改善(improving)美国的基础设施以及缩小贸易逆差(shrinking
trade deficits
)。

To achieve their targets, China and the United States, the world’s two
largest economies and each other’s top trade partners, have no
better choice but to work more closely because of their highly
intertwined economic and trade interests
.

为了实现各自的目标,中美作为世界最大的两个经济体以及彼此重要(each
other’s top)
的贸易伙伴,因为双方高度相关的经贸利益(highly
intertwined economic and trade interests)
,唯有更加紧密地合作。

In 2016, their two-way goods trade was worth 578.6 billion U.S.
dollars while two-way foreign direct investment passed 60 billion
dollars.

2016年,中美双边货物进出口额为5786亿美元,双边直接投资额超过600亿美元。

However, both countries need a stable and peaceful environment at the
national, regional as well as international levels for their
continuous economic development. Beijing and Washington therefore
require to deepen their trust and enhance cooperation on major
regional and international issues.

为了经济的持续发展,两国都需要和平稳定的国内、地区和国际环境。因此,中美(Beijing
and Washington
)以首都代指国家
需要加深信任,加强在重大国际和地区问题上的协调合作。

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